In many respects, the development of the women’s political movement in Mexico is akin to a modern-day story of how a girl grows up to become a woman, mature, intelligent, resourceful, and clever, albeit still the daughter invested in the country’s culture and heritage. Indeed, the historical analysis of how women gained political astuteness, clout, and endurance is centered on the richness and complexity that is uniquely Mexican with all of its social, cultural, economic, and political panoramas. The voices of women whose lives focus on service and dedication to their communities are the most telling insofar as the essential elements of the women’s political movement. Parallel to the political movement is the feminist position, which adds an international scope to the multi-vocal background. However, there are as many different kinds of feminisms as there are voices, no doubt a phenomenon common to other countries such as the United States. Examples of these voices are in the political lives of three women from the state of Tamaulipas (a U. S. and Mexico border state), particularly in juxtaposed views and perspectives against the historical and current political discourse.
Women’s Suffrage Movement in Mexico
According to the historical account by Victoria E. Rodriguez, (Women in Contemporary Mexican Politics, 2003)) women in Mexico were not allowed to vote across all levels of political elections until they obtained full suffrage in 1953 (Rodriguez, 2003). Amalia Cabellero de Castillo Ledón is credited for bringing the proposal to its final steps when she persuaded then Presidente de la Republica, Adolfo Ruiz Cortines to declare equal suffrage for women. The road toward equal rights for Mexican women is arduous, and many women have participated in the process, their contributions small and large, but each one played a crucial role nevertheless. In Mérida, Yucatán, women were allowed equal suffrage at the state level in 1920; soon afterward, the first women in modern Mexico were elected to office. Of the three elected, one was Elvia Carrillo Puerto, sister of the Yucatecan governer, Felipe Carrillo Puerta. But the suffrage movement (1935-1953) was successful because of indefatigable, persuasive women, networking, negotiating and lobbying. Aurora Jimenez Palacios from Baja California was the first woman elected in 1954 after full suffrage. Today, women comprise 52% of the country’s electorate.
Women’s issues and rights have been consistently relegated to a secondary position in Mexico’s political history, particularly during harsh, economic periods that reinforced the “ultraconservatism” of the right. Some of the key events that boosted the country’s feminist movement include the United Nations-sponsored women’s conference held in Mexico City in 1975, which became the focal point for protest and the beginnings of the modern feminist movement in Mexico; the establishment of 51 new NGOs in the 1980’s, many of which were directed to gender-related issues; the Plan de Igualdad in 1991, which foregrounded equity issues in regard to campaigning and holding political office; the passing of the Ley de Violencia Intrafamiliar in 1997; the formation of the Mexican Women’s Parliament in 1998, and shortly therein, the Comisión de Equidad y Género; and the 1999 reform of the Federal Labor Law forbidding the discrimination against women based on pregnancy. It’s important to note that although some Latin American countries have passed a law that requires a quota for ensuring an equitable or near-equitable participation by women in political offices (40% women and 60% men), Mexico’s “law” (Cuota de Paridad) is not enforceable, thus, feminists are closely monitoring the electoral process for inconsistencies and inequalities.
Women Leaders in Tamaulipas
The advances made by women leaders in Mexico in the face of immense obstacles, social, economic, cultural, and politics, has spurred interest among feminists and researchers. Rodriguez’ (2003) work focused on the identification of a multitude of various aspects of successful women leaders in Mexico in order to advance the participation of women and improve the democratic structures of the country. The women featured in our study shared many of the features and characteristics that emerged in Rodriguez’ study. The following summaries underscore the commonalities. An important observation is that the women held steadfastly to their political party’s ideologies, thus, their interests are not solely anchored on women’s needs and issues and unlikely to call themselves “feminists.” The descriptions are based on a panel discussion presentation on a May 6, 2011 to an audience of university students, faculty, administrators, and community (University of Texas Brownsville).
Beatriz (Betty) Collado-Lara (http://bettycollado.org): deputada del estado de Tamaulipas y coordinadora del grupo parliamentario del Partido Acción Nacional or the National Action Party (PAN), [representative for the state of Tamaulipas and coordinator for the parliamentary group of the political party - PAN]. Ms. Collado-Lara began her talk substantiating the advances by women in government – roughly, 25% of the legislative body, at the federal and state levels, are comprised of women; 18% of the judicial system and three members of the executive branch are women. In the state of Tamaulipas, 30.5% of the representatives are women. The election of 2000, which heralded an historic change in the country’s political landscape, was an open door for Collado, and she like many other men and women, took advantage of the “transition of a new stage” by participating in the political electoral process. A different political party took center stage replacing the long-standing PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional or Institutional Revolutionary Party) with the PAN of the newly elected president, Vicente Fox. But, Collado’s efforts in 2000 and 2004 did not result in winning the elections for which she campaigned until 2006, when she ran and became the winner of a coveted federal election, a “first” for a woman to be elected from that district. Collado seized at the opportunity to serve in politics because of ideological reasons, and the PAN best serve her interests in that regard. Her rhetoric is often pronounced with motivational messages, contending that “la vida se compone de los sueños” (life is made of dreams), and since engaging in the political process that all of her efforts have been worth it. Collado is apparently proud of her accomplishments, particularly because of the many obstacles that she managed to overcome.
Collado claims Beatriz Paredes Rangel, a senior member of the PAN, as an influential person in her life. She also mentioned that the needs of women in her district have motivated her to accept and fulfill her responsibilities as a politician. However, her priorities are with the issues that “affect us all,” and she stands with President Calderón on his administration’s decisions.
In many respects, Collado’s ideas about women and her role within the institution of the family in Mexico coincide with the information that Rodriguez collected in her study of women politicians (see Rodriguez, 2003, p. 119). Collado fits Rodriguez’ description of the “progressive Panista”, which acknowledges the obstacles in the political process, but doesn’t deviate from the traditional view that women bring their natural essence as women to the political experience. Collado’s mention of the “cuota de paridad” that drives the equity agenda for maintaining the 40-60 ratio of women to men in elections at all levels demonstrates her awareness of her own plight as a woman politician.
|Letty Salazar Vásquez|
Congresista Norma Leticia (Letty) Salazar Vásquez, presidenta de la Población e Inmigración de Puntos Fronterizos: Salazar Vásquez, the youngest of the three featured women, rose from the ranks in the 13 years that she has served in political office. She began serving as a councilwoman (regiodora) and then, as a state representative (deputada) for Tamaulipas. Her father and her sister are in political life; her mother prefers a more private role, but both her parents received an elementary school education while she and her sister obtained post secondary degrees, and in her case, she obtained a post graduate degree. In her talk, Salazar mentioned an important achievement under her charge: the passage of an immigration law, “una ley de inmigración,” the first of its kind in 30 years, an important feat to advance the rights of immigrants. She elaborated on the importance of this law because of the polemics surrounding the mistreatment of Mexican immigrants who illegally cross the border into the United States.
When asked about her political stance on the issues related specifically to women, Salazar alluded to her role as an advocate for women’s rights early in her career. However, in light of her overall summary of her career, the advocacy role was just a step toward other tasks, one in which a junior member of the legislative body would assume, or as an obligation in response to having been elected as a woman. According to Salazar, a woman’s contribution in her role as politician is based on the same kind of ideological platform as her party’s affiliation, the PAN, and similar to what Collado had discussed. Specifically, Salazar named three characteristics of a woman leader in politics: a) vocación de servicio (dedication to service); b) honestidad (honesty); and c) ser sensible (women are practical and can personalize problems).
|Guadalupe Flores Valdez|
Guadalupe Flores Valdez, the oldest of the three featured speakers, is deputada and presidente del congreso del estado de Tamaulipas. Her political agenda is clearly focused on the small town communities often disregarded or overlooked by the progressive political undercurrents in urban areas of the country. A member of the PRI, partido revolucionario institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party) since 1982, Flores Valdez grew up in a small town of San Carlos and despite very few resources, she was able to obtain a post secondary degree and worked as a teacher before she became involved in politics. She was the daughter of campesinos (farmers) but felt a special kind of responsibility as a member of her community that led her into a career afuera de las aulas y en la comunidad (out of the classrooms and into the community).
Flores’ vision and dedication are clearly anchored in the needs of the campesinos. She feels an obligation toward a segment of the population that she identifies with and feels the responsibility to represent them. She made some reference to the plight of the woman, for example, that 24% of women in the country are head of households. But, Flores’ political rhetoric in regards to women’s rights is aligned with the conservative, traditional views of women as first and foremost members of the family. Her response to the question about the differentiating characteristics of women leaders includes a) honesty; b) responsibility; and c) practical (sensibles), in exact alignment with Salazar Vasquez’ similar response.
Feminists in Mexico
A well-known writer, Marta Lamas began work as an activist/feminist in the ‘70s and recently celebrated the fifteenth year as editor of the popular and academic-style magazine publication, Debate Feminista. She founded La Sociedad Pro Derechos de la Mujer (SEMILLAS) that provides assistance and support to small businesses and cooperatives that work on diverse issues and varieties of venues related to women. She is co-founder with Patricia Mercado and others of GIRE (Grupo de Información en Producción Elegida), an organization that promotes women’s reproduction rights.
More Notable Feminists/Activists:
• Director of Consorcio, a coalition formed to campaign politically and socially for women’s causes such as women’s health issues, equity among sexes; works with legislative actions to promote change;
• Activist in the feminist movement;
• Promotes equity in women’s rights and combats social injustices for women
|Martha Sánchez Nestor|
Representative for CONAM (Coordinadora Nacional de mujeres indigenas y enlace continental de mujeres indígenas;
• Coordinadora Guerrerense de mujeres indígenas;
Founder, La Casa de la Salud del la Mujer, Manos Unidos
|Lol Kin Castañeda Badilla|
Activist/spokesperson, Lesbians, Gays, transexuals, bisexuals
|Adriana Ortiz Ortega|
Author of books on abortion politics, sexual and reproductive
Professor/academic at UNAM
|Teresa Ulloa Ziáurris|
Attorney/human rights activist; 40 years fighting human trafficking and Violence against women;
Regional director for the Coalition Against Trafficking Women (CATW);
Created Red Alert system in México;
Received Gleitsman International Activist Award in 2011
Vásquez-Mota: Highly Criticized by Feminists
Josefina Vásquez-Mota, presidential candidate in 2012, was criticized by feminists because of her lack of interest in working within an agenda advocating for women. In an article by Gladis Torres Ruiz (Vásquez Mota: canto de sirenas por el voto) Vásquez Mota is portrayed as anti-feminist and an opportunist, loyal to Calderón’s political machine to the “bone,” which has rewarded her with political advancements. (See article by Torres Ruiz on Marta Subiñas Abad’s critique on Vásquez Mota and Isabel Miranda de Wallace.)
“Where are the Women?”
The fact that very few women have successfully competed in important, huge elections in the Mexico’s history substantiates claims made by authors such as Rodriguez (2003) that there exists “sexist patterns of candidate selection” (p. 201). Indeed, only six women have claimed victories as governors in four states: Griselda Alvarez, (representing the PRI in ‘79-’85) in Colima; Rosario Robles Berlanga (representing the PRD in ’99-’00) in Distrito Federal; Beatriz Paredes Rangel (representing the PRI in ’87-’92) in Tlaxcala; Dulce Maria Sauri Riancho (representing the PRI in ’91-’94) in Yucatan; Ivonne Ortega Pacheco (representing the PRI in ’07-present) also in Yucatan; Amalia Garcia Medina (representing the PRD in ’04-’10) in Zacatecas. Particularly, the opposition parties, the PAN and the PRD, have fallen short of their campaign intentions to be more inclusive in the pursuit of more representation and democracy.
Rodriguez, V. E. (2003). Women in contemporary Mexican politics. Austin:
University of Texas Press.
Daptnhe cuevas Ortiz http://www.consorcio.org.mx/presentacion.htm
Lol Kin Castaneda Badillo http://lolkin.blogspot.com/
http://casadesaludometepec.org/martha.htm martha sanchez nestor: Founder, la casa de la salud de la Mujer “Manos Unidas” (2003)
Teresa Ulloa Ziaurria http://www.centerforpublicleadership.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=499&Itemid=279
Adriana Ortiz Ortega http://www.ictrankings.unam.mx/ADRIANA.pdf